324-3 C. Costs, Benefits and Effectiveness: (Continued) Some 450 individual studies are under way at any given time, and 600 training programs serving approximately 60,000 participants are conducted annually (E-2). The NIHR appropriation for FY 1984 was $36 million. Of this, approximately $16.4 million was devoted to the RTC program; $7.9 million to the REC program; $3.5 million to discrete grants and contracts for research; and $2.8 million for research utilization. Field-initiated research accounted for $4.1 million, $500,000 went for fellowships; and $800,000 for related activities. RSA supported Model Spinal Cord Injury Projects at $5.0 million (E.2). Research and Training Centers Program (RTC) Of the 35 RTCs funded in FY 1984, 12 are medical RTCs. Their work covers such areas as cardiopulmonary disease, spinal cord injury, health care delivery, special problems of the severely impaired, biofeedback, and neuromuscular dys- functions. There are five vocational rehabilitation RTCs, two on deafness, one on psychosocial research, two on mental illness, three on mental retar- dation, two on aging, one on independent living, one on blindness, two on Native Americans, three on pediatric rehabilitation, and one on rehabilitation of the disabled in the Pacific Basin. Rehabilitation Engineering Centers (REC) Sixteen Rehabilitation Engineering Centers were funded in fiscal year 1984 with the purposes of: (1) developing innovative methods of applying advanced medical technology, scientific achievement, and psychiatric, psychological, and social knowledge to solve rehabilitation problems; (2) developing systems of technical and engineering information exchange; and (3) improving the distri- bution of technological devices and equipment to handicapped individuals. The developments of these centers included: (1) a multi-channel electrical stimulation system that allows paraplegic patients to stand and walk, (2) eye glasses that protect the macula from irreversible damage from excessive light following optical surgery, and (3) utilization of industrial robots for assist- ance to severely disabled persons at the competitive work place (E-4). Discrete Grant Awards Approximately $3.5 million was obligated through individual grant awards and contracts. Some individual grant awards were for research in the broad areas of psychological and medical problems, sensory disabilities, severe burns, and other specific problems. In addition, about $2.8 million was devoted to re- search utilization projects which mainly offer coordinated dissemination and information services, promote innovations in service programs based on R&D results, and instill an awareness of change processes (E-3).rmation 1s available.